What is a DNA Bending Genetic Photon Tweezers?

Dna-kıvıran-genetik-foton-cımbızı-nedirScientists have developed a photon tweezer that extracts individual genes from DNA and shines them with light. Photon tweezers smaller than the smallest molecule are used to fold, bend and shape genes. Thus, newer and more effective mRNA vaccines are being developed against epidemics such as the Omicron variant of the Corona virus that causes Covid 19. So how do microscopic photon tweezers, the most useful tool of organic nanotechnology, work? What does it teach us about human DNA for genetics and how does it manipulate DNA? Let’s see with histones, which are the skeletal component of DNA.

Photon tweezers are an optical molecular trap

With tweezers, we normally take eyebrows, but with photon tweezers we can use a double-stranded helix of human DNA. “We unzip it”. If you ask why, it is very useful for genetics to pull out a small part of the DNA strands, a short strip, with tweezers. So we sequence the genes in DNA, see how genes are expressed, and make progress in epigenetics. In summary, we learn how DNA mutates, how genes change, and how the copied DNA repairs itself as cells divide. All this enables the development of stem cell therapy against cancer and even new mRNA vaccines. How?

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{ 4}Photon tweezers and human DNA

Isolating

DNA has taken scientists hard for years. The biggest reason for this is that DNA is small, but all molecules are small, which in fact is one of the largest molecules. The main difficulty is that the DNA is tightly packed like a ball of wool so that it does not take up much space in the cell nucleus. In short, it is extremely difficult to extract and examine individual genes without damaging DNA. By unwinding the strands of DNA, our genetic code is packaged into chromosomes. However, these are not the regular X and Y shapes you see in the pictures. Chromosomes are more irregular packages.

Extracting the gene you want from them requires very fine control. As a matter of fact, chromosomes open like plastic spirals in student homework folders as cells divide, but it is difficult to open from the outside. When you open it, you will encounter a DNA containing a few genes you are looking for, but the actual length of which reaches 2 meters. I told you the problem was that the DNA was compact rather than small. 😊 Don’t assume, though, that DNA coils itself into a double-stranded helix. So how does DNA bend?

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How is DNA packaged?

Of course, there is electromagnetic tension that keeps the DNA molecule in shape. This is due to the electron bonds that surround the atoms that make up DNA. Also, co-charged electrons repel each other, balancing each other. Still, DNA forms helices in chromosomes that wrap around principal histones. Histones are protein molecules. DNA is wound on them like thread wound on a spool. Histones are also linked together around a larger histone. Thus, it forms chromatosomes, which are the main component of chromosomes. These and the DNA strands at the ends get compressed like a bundle of threads to form nucleosomes.

Thus, the DNA in the chromosomes is organized into nucleosomes. These structures are wrapped around chromatin, forming a highly ordered molecular skeleton. It is also entangled in structures other than chromatin. I told you at length, but that’s why you can’t pull out a single gene by taking molecular tweezers and diving into DNA from the head. For this, you need to open the chromatin, nucleosomes and chromatosomes, which are always folded together. Then you will open the DNA… Therefore, a small and sensitive tweezer is not enough for you. This model should be as handy as airplane tweezers.We owe much of the progress in medical therapy to genetics, and advances in genetics to photon tweezers in addition to computers. The first tweezers in 1986 could hold 25-nanometer pieces of molecules. That’s 25 billionths of a meter. Since then, tweezers have gotten smaller and more precise. Photon tweezers also work with radiation pressure.

As a matter of fact, we have known since the 1600s that light can push objects. Today, we know that although photons are massless, they have momentum. Photons can transfer half the momentum to objects. This principle underlies the projects of light sail probe sighting to neighboring stars. Light can push sails through space. Light can also repel DNA molecules. In fact, rays coming from opposite directions can balance each other and hold the molecules with optical tweezers.

Of course, the radiation (in this case, light) pressure is too low and not sufficient to hold the molecules. On the other hand, the lasers we developed in the 1960s paved the way for photon tweezers. So much so that by taking advantage of the strangeness of quantum mechanics, we started to use lasers to pull as well as push, which corresponds to two wires of a tweezer. The first thing we learned with photon tweezers was how the DNA molecule is wrapped around histones.

This year, we also saw structures wrapped around histones that wrap DNA like a wrap. It was like wrapping a piece of fabric and then wrapping a string around it and tightening it even more. We also learned that the DNA in nucleosomes is 40 percent longer than we thought. So what did this information do?

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Afterword for photon tweezers

How human DNA is twisted like a twisted macaroni, uncoiled, pulled straight from both sides, compressed like a coil spring, wrapped like a wrap, and We learned that it opens like a dough. All this taught him to practice gene therapy with prime genetics, the gene scissors CRISPIR, and the art of protein folding. It also meant knowing how DNA changes shape, playing with disease-causing virus genes, and developing mRNA vaccines. When we say mRNA today, we think of viruses, but we will also use this technology in the development of bacteriological vaccines and cancer vaccines in the future.

The next step is photon tweezers. Now that we know the natural deformation of DNA, we can examine DNA without damaging it with optical tweezers. We can remove faulty genes and insert healthy ones, and even straighten the genes in place by twisting them right. I have described these in the prime genetics article in the context of cancer, but this technology will also work in the future to repair cell genetics to delay aging. The rest will come like a sock rip.

You and the 4 Percent What Separates Humans from Apes, you may now ask, What is DNA and Why is Gene Selfish in Trash DNA? Check out The Advent of DNA-Based Biological Computing and Robots, and Why Double-Stranded Helical DNA Is Right-Handed. You can look at why people are right-handed, when we started walking upright and using fire, and why some babies are born from two mothers. If you’re feeling brave, you can also see what you can learn by doing a DNA test. Stay with science and health. 😊

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1Optical trapping and manipulation of neutral particles using lasers{ 14}
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Optical Tweezers Analysis of DNA–Protein Complexes
3Optical tweezers in single-molecule biophysics
4Optical Tweezers and their Application to Biological Systems
5Observation of a single-beam gradient force optical trap for dielectric particles

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