What Happens If A Black Hole Hits Earth?

Dünyaya-kara-delik-çarparsa-ne-olurWhat if a black hole hits the Earth? Will the world explode and shatter? Or will the black hole swallow the Earth? But what about the famous Tunguska eruption that took place in Siberia in 1908? Could Tunguska be not a meteorite but a first black hole hitting the Earth? Indeed, what are black holes in the first place, and is dark matter actually black holes? Read now for the answer to the question What happens if a black hole crashes:

Planet Earth vs. black hole

To answer the question who will win the Earth–black hole collision, do something about black holes. we need to know. Black holes are not cosmic vacuum cleaners, so they don’t suck anything in. You have to go and fall into the black hole. This is not easy either! There is no guarantee of falling into a black hole.

After all, black holes are surrounded by a distorted and turbulent spacetime. We usually call this egg-shaped area the ergosphere. If you enter the ergosphere, you will either fall into a black hole or be thrown into space. There is also the radiation pressure caused by black holes. This could blow you into space, which we call the Eddington limit. Keep these two in mind for the question of whether a black hole hits the Earth and destroys the planet.

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Will a black hole hit the Earth?

To calculate this probability, let’s look at the black hole size and number. The smaller the black holes, the more likely they are to collide; because there are many small things in the universe. Moreover, it is difficult to see their arrival from afar. We also know that no deadly black hole has hit the Earth so far. If it was, we wouldn’t be here today. Also, for life to evolve in 4 billion years, large and dangerous black holes need to be far enough away from us which it is!

The nearest black hole we know of, Cygnus X-1, is about 1000 light-years away from us. We know it because the companion star draws gas from its neighbor as it orbits. The temperature of the gas falling by spiraling into the black hole increases and begins to shine like a star. Otherwise, it would be difficult to see a so-called non-luminous black hole. Keep this in mind for the Eddington limit as well. However, there is a scenario that makes it possible for a large number of black holes to hit Earth in the past. First black holes:

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If the black hole hits first

Yes, the Earth is already riddled with black holes, maybe we don’t know. According to one theory, black holes first emerged with the big bang that formed the universe. These can range in size from subatomic to solar system-sized supermassive black holes. However, if there were black holes in the first place, the most common ones today are micro black holes the size of Mars’ moon Phobos.

How did they form?

During the big bang, the universe was small, dense and dense. it was too hot. This was creating very high pressure. Judging from the equation of mass to energy, we see that some regions of spacetime in the baby universe can get extremely compressed and first collapse into black holes. In fact, random quantum oscillations in the big bang may have covered the entire universe with subatomic microscopic black holes. Indeed, this is why some physicists say that dark matter is actually black holes in the first place.

Fortunately, cosmic inflation before the hot big bang that formed the universe as we know it, flattened space. Therefore, the universe did not first pull over itself because of black holes and became a cosmic black hole. As I said before, black holes ranged from microscopic to supermassive black holes. Still, the number of small black holes was much greater than the large ones. Since the gravitational range of the smaller ones is also limited, the universe did not collapse into a black hole after the hot big bang.

On the other hand, the supermassive black holes at the center of many galaxies today may have formed in the big bang… or the medium-sized black holes that formed at that time may have formed over time. It got bigger and became supermassive.After all, the smaller the black holes, the faster they evaporate. Microscopic black holes evaporate instantly with Hawking radiation! Since the universe is 13.78 billion years old, only micro black holes, stars and supermassive black holes have survived from the first black holes.

Black hole statistics

Supermassive black holes formed the core of the first galaxies. Therefore, supermassive black holes are not dangerous to us, except that the Earth will go and fall into the supermassive black hole in the galactic center, which is 25,600 light years away from us. As in the movie Interstellar, they can be as bright as the Sun or we can see it coming from afar… If you want such a space accident, you have to get the Earth very drunk. 😀 As for the dark matter thing:

Stars and supermassive black holes bend starlight with strong gravity. So we looked at these types of gravitational lenses that create a fisheye effect. When we counted only the black hole lenses and not the galactic lenses, we saw something interesting. The number of stars and supermassive black holes in the universe was too few to be dark matter. Moreover, since the Big Bang, new black holes have been formed as stars exploded and/or collapsed as supernovae.

This indicates that the number of the original black holes surviving today is less. In short, we know that black holes are not dark matter. At the same time, statistics show that only micro black holes can hit the Earth. Strictly speaking, it is not possible for a black hole with a mass greater than 1016 tons to hit our Earth. In 10 billion million tons This is 15 percent of the mass of the Moon!

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First, black holes and dark matter

To calculate the probability of a black hole hitting Earth, take a moment to calculate the dark matter = black Let’s assume the hole scenario. With this, let’s calculate the maximum possible number of primordial black holes in the universe. Dark matter is 5 times more than the normal matter that composes us. It makes up 27 percent of the universe. Accordingly, we have already calculated the proportion of dark matter in the Milky Way disk. There should be 1015 tons of dark matter in the Solar System.

That’s 1 quadrillion tons!

Also, dark matter is rare in space. Otherwise, supermassive black holes would already form everywhere and swallow galaxies. So, the first micro black holes in the solar system were the size of asteroids, and their number was at most equal to the number of asteroids in the asteroid belt, that is, less than 2 billion. 2 billion may seem like a lot to you, but even that is not enough for the Earth to be riddled with black holes. After all, the Solar System is huge! It could be 33 light-years cubed! So don’t expect all black holes to be psychopathic and crash into Earth.

Still, planet Earth is 4.54 billion years old. So, in 4.54 billion years, at most, 1.9 billion micro black holes can collide with the Earth. With Jupiter, the Sun and other planets, and the vast vacuum of space, that’s not possible either, but if Earth is extremely unfortunate, we can hit at most 2.38 micro black holes per year. With those coming from outside the solar system, this number will increase to an average of 2.5 black holes.

There are asteroids, too! They’re not bald either. They will crash too… We would expect an asteroid big enough to wipe out the dinosaurs to crash into the Earth once in 100 million years. In this case, a micro black hole can hit us every 100-200 million years. How big and heavy are they?We need to know this to understand the severity of the collision and whether it is deadly:

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If a black hole hits, we’ll weigh it?

The moon of Mars, Phobos, is actually the red planet It is one of two gravity-rotating asteroid-made moons. Phobos is about 22.5 km wide and has a mass of 10 billion tons. If Phobos were a black hole, its diameter would be equal to a hydrogen atom at the fundamental energy level! Height and mass are ok. What about the collision velocity?

Since the Sun’s mass is greater than its micro black hole, even the largest planet Jupiter, the Sun determines the maximum speed an object can reach in the Solar System.So our first micro black hole will hit the Earth at a speed of 10 to 100 kilometers per second.

Will it destroy the Earth?

No! Instead, it will pierce the Earth like a bullet. It goes in one end and exits the other. For example, if it hits Asia, it will pass through the Earth’s core and out through the Americas or the Pacific Ocean. Will it destroy life on Earth? Let’s go back to black hole velocity for that. Since the diameter of the Earth is 12,742 km, this black hole passes through our world in 2.12 to 21.2 minutes. Then what happens to Earth?

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If the black hole collides, the ergosphere and diameter

Since our black hole is the size of an atom, only subatomic particles and electrons It can “swallow” elementary particles such as The ergosphere of the black hole will be 2 times larger than the hydrogen atom. Of course, as you go deeper into the Earth, the density of matter on the planet will increase! However, the black hole will pass through the maximum density core in 4.2 minutes without slowing down. In short, because of its diameter and ergosphere, the black hole cannot swallow enough atoms to damage our planet as it pierces through us.

What about the Eddington limit?

The matter swallowed by the black hole becomes superheated, reaching the event horizon. As it approaches, its speed increases to almost the speed of light. Meanwhile, its temperature reaches millions of degrees and it glows fiercely. Since light can also repel objects, a strong radiation pressure is created around the black hole. This makes it very difficult for particles to fall into the micro black hole. For all these reasons, even the largest micro black hole cannot destroy Earth or life. What about people? For example, if it goes through us like a bullet, will it hurt us?

You have a better chance of living in space. The black hole travels rapidly in the vacuum of space without emitting deadly radiation. After all, atoms are sparse in vacuum. Your body is also less dense than the earth’s crust. As it passes through you, it will cause a small burst of gamma rays. This can lead to potentially fatal radiation poisoning. Maybe your life will be saved because 60 percent of you is water, because it both reduces your density and water is a partial radiation shield. We have to ask the experts…

On Earth, those who get in the way of the micro black hole will die. After all, man is small, the world is big. You can’t say that a black hole doesn’t kill people just because it didn’t harm the Earth. Why you ask:

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{2 }Would it be Tunguska if the black hole hit?

In 1908, there was an explosion of 20 to 30 megatons in Tunguska. This is equivalent to 200 standard thermonuclear bombs at 150 kilotons. According to scientists, this was because a comet crashed into the Earth. However, we could not find a crater on the ground. So physicists thought in the 1930s that the Tunguska explosion was a micro-black hole collision. As a result, black holes pierce the Earth. It doesn’t open a crater like a meteorite. When we say it pierces:

When the meteorite hits the ground, it opens a crater and explodes. In short, it stops after a moment. The black hole continues on its way until it pierces the Earth and emerges from the other end. Meanwhile, it opens a crater at least as big as an asteroid of Tunguska equivalent. Moreover, lava constantly erupts from this giant crater for several minutes; because the black hole continues to pierce the Earth! So you would expect this collision to create a giant crater filled with lava and pour massive torrents of lava that will eventually plateau. Keep this in mind.

Secondly, as the black hole enters the atmosphere, it will emit powerful gamma rays, like the side-effect of a thermonuclear bomb exploding in midair. Fortunately, when the Earth is more than 12 thousand km in diameter, the depth of the atmosphere, thick enough to breathe, is 5 km. The troposphere, the densest part of the atmosphere, is also 10 km thick. So much so that the black hole hits the ground without emitting enough gamma rays to poison the entire Earth. Of course, when it hits it will cause a deadly thermonuclear explosion. How violent will this explosion be? I calculated this for you.A metallic asteroid collision with a diameter of 22 km would be far more deadly to Earth. The micro black hole is of course much denser than Phobos, but it is atomic in size and its mass is equal to Phobos. We also know that the collision speed will be 10 to 100 km/sec. On the other hand, if Phobos gets out of Mars orbit and hits Earth, the collision speed will be 20 km per second for reasons that need not be explained here. Let’s use this average for the micro black hole collision.

An object with a mass of 10 billion tons and a diameter of 22.5 km with a specific gravity equal to Phobos collides with the Earth at a speed of 20 km per second. Since this is actually a black hole, it does not lose its mass through evaporation as it passes through the atmosphere. It pierces the planet in full size. It pierces instead of crashing, but let’s pretend it’s crashing. We can’t get out of the calculations by thinking this as an ordinary asteroid collision and simplifying it.

There will be a 496 million megaton thermonuclear explosion on Earth (luckily, the radiation equivalent will be less, since the black hole will pierce through). Still, the asteroid impact that wiped out the dinosaurs had set the atmosphere on fire even though it was only 100 million megatons strong. There were fires everywhere. A micro black hole collision would cause an explosion about 5 times stronger than that. This collision will not destroy life completely, but it will kill most of the vertebrate species along with the human species. See the Great Dying for the equivalent true mass extinction but we made a mistake:

Where did we go wrong if the black hole hit?

We’ve oversimplified it . To explain something, it is necessary to simplify, but only to the extent necessary. Ockham’s razor is a useful principle, not a rule. A micro black hole with a mass of 10 billion tons and the diameter of an atom would pierce through the atmosphere as I told you. However, when it hits the ground, it causes an explosion of the Tunguska equivalent of up to 30 megatons… piercing through the earth’s crust without stopping. This is a crater up to 200 meters in diameter. To sum up, a real black hole collision would cause an explosion big enough to destroy Istanbul, but only create a 200 m diameter crater. Black hole collision does not destroy Earth, life and people. A black hole also swallows up a few thousand tons of matter at most. This is not enough for the black hole to grow and swallow the Earth. Still, I say don’t stop where it hits. 😉

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Tunguska and the Moon if the black hole collided?

Tunguska explosion did not result in a crater, and we’re pretty sure it wouldn’t have happened if the black hole did. After all, a black hole that pierced the Earth from Tunguska brought it out into space from the other side of the planet. However, we did not find such a hole in North and South America. 1908, on the other hand, is geologically like a second ago, so it is impossible for this crater to have been erased over time by earthquakes and continental drift. For this reason, Tunguska was most likely similar to the Chelyabinsk eruption, also seen in Russia in 2013.

In the Tunguska event, a meteor (perhaps a space rock with a comet nucleus) exploded in mid-air. The shock wave also led to the Tunguska explosion. Well done! If this meteor hit the ground, it would cause an environmental disaster. As we finish the article, let’s come to our satellite, the Moon: If micro black holes hit the Earth, they can also hit the Moon. As I said, these open smaller and misshapen craters that are not like an asteroid impact. When we look at the moon as in the picture, we see all the ancient craters. After all, there is no atmosphere on our satellite.

Now you will say, “But teacher, the micro meteorites that hit the Moon renew the lunar surface every 80 thousand years”. True, but the black hole crater would be too large to be erased in billions of years. We did not see this on the moon. Of course, the Moon’s diameter is narrow and its mass is one-sixth that of the Earth. In short, the black hole is more likely to hit the Earth. Still, in 4.54 billion years, we should have seen a few black hole craters in the lunar crust. We didn’t see it. So what does this mean?

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Afterword to the question of if a black hole hits

If there are first black holes formed during the big bang, micro black holes are the most common today. must have remained.Since they didn’t crash, it’s likely that there was no first black hole in the universe. After all, if micro black holes did not form, supermassive black holes would never form in the first place, which should be rarer. This has two consequences: Dark matter is not a black hole, and life on Earth is safer because there were no black holes in the first place.

You too can now take a look at the snowball earth theory and how the comet collision extended the last ice age. . You can read about the Parker space probe, which passes through the corona of the Sun and broke the record for the closest spacecraft to the Sun, and the BepiColombo vehicle, which goes to Mercury, the closest planet to the Sun. If you’re feeling brave, you might ask, should we search for life in space on the ganymede satellite? You can also research the question of whether the universe can be in the form of a bagel by not slowing down.

You can download the Starbasekozan mobile application now to easily access all the articles on the blog and my Youtube videos. Stay with science and health. 😊

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1Possibility of Primordial black holes Collision with Earth and the Consequences
2Detecting Microscopic Black Holes with Neutrino Telescopes
3Possibility of hypothetical stable micro black hole production at future 100 TeV collider
4{ 14}Signatures of microscopic black holes and extra dimensions at future neutrino telescopes

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