How did the Higgs boson prevent the universe from becoming a black hole? The Higgs particle is responsible for the Higgs mechanism, which gives mass to elementary particles, except neutrinos. It is also the particle that determines the value of the universal gravitational constant, together with the Higgs field that surrounds the entire universe. Without the Higgs boson, massive particles, and hence the matter that make up galaxies, stars, planets, and humans, would not exist. According to a new theory, the Higgs boson may have prevented the universe from being destroyed by collapsing into a black hole as soon as it was formed. Moreover, it can explain dark matter by proving the multiverse theory that says there is more than one universe in the universe! Let’s see this theory right away.
The Big Bang and the Higgs boson
Those who read my previous black hole article know that the universe has a serious “collapse into itself” problem; because the universe with its current mass was only the diameter of a pea or grapefruit. Therefore, it was small and heavy enough to immediately become a black hole. Scientists have tried to overcome this problem by developing theories such as the cosmic inflation theory, which corresponds to the cold big bang that triggered the hot big bang that created the universe. The new theory of the Higgs boson, which I will now explain, is one of them.
This theory was developed based on the question of “Why is the Higgs particle not heavier or lighter, but has the value to form our entire universe?” Theoretical physicists here want to make some changes to the standard model that describes the properties of all particles we know. Of course, they want to combine the general theory of relativity with the standard model, which until now is incompatible with quantum physics, but shows how gravity, the fourth force in the universe, works. As I have explained in the strong nuclear force and quantum electrodynamics and in many other articles, this is a long topic.
In this article, however, we will only focus on the Higgs’ relationship to the big bang. Yet one of the areas that inspired the development of this theory is the strong nuclear force that holds atomic nuclei together. This force is flexible like a tire. It does not hold the protons and neutrons close together in the nucleus very tightly. It only gets stronger as they try to move away from each other. It does the same to the quarks that make them up. Thus, the quarks move rapidly within the radius of a proton, for example, without sticking together. Since mass is derived from energy, they increase the mass of the proton and neutron exactly as necessary.
Neither more nor less…
Otherwise, and as its name goes, the “strong force”, which is the strongest force in the universe. It would turn all atomic nuclei and the protons and neutrons that make them up into microscopic black holes. They would also evaporate instantly. Only photons and radiation would remain in the universe. We owe the formation of the universe as we know it to the symmetries that give the strong nuclear force its flexibility:
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Like the proton particles gain mass by exchanging intermediate particles with the Higgs particle. This is called the Higgs mechanism. Particle exchange creates inertia, that is, resistance to acceleration, in particles through energy transfer, which is mass in classical mechanics.
Strong force and symmetries
To understand this article, we will need to delve into the concept of symmetry in physics. All particles, energy and radiation in the universe obey certain symmetries. Symmetries are degrees of freedom and axes of motion of particles. After all, everything moves in space. Symmetries also determine permissions such as how fast a particle will move in how many dimensions and at what frequency it will vibrate. This gives particles physical properties that we can measure, such as mass and spin. We will see the types of symmetry, of course, but the 4 physical laws/forces/interactions in the universe are all dependent on these “spatial” symmetries.
Some even say that there are temporal symmetries over time crystals, but this is a separate issue. 😉 Also during the big bang the symmetries were broken, in technical terms the symmetries were broken.Thus, the four laws of physics that govern the universe emerged by decoupling from a single force. Thus, space and time as we know them were formed. Here is the new theory, in the context of Higgs’ contribution to the standard model, updating the issue of which symmetries were broken during the big bang, in what order and how, by producing spacers. Thus, he tries to explain why the universe did not collapse into a black hole at birth. Well, we’ve had enough input. Now let’s explain the theory:
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The CERN LHC ATLAS detector saw the Higgs.
Higgs boson and the laws of physics
All physical interactions occur with virtual or real particles. For example, electrons repel each other with virtual photons. Likewise, over-charged electrons lose energy by emitting real photons. Radio waves are also made up of real photons. In short, and in a sense, matter and energy have always been conjugated since the big bang. This is despite the fact that cosmic microwave background radiation (CMB) from the big bang was emitted into space when the universe was 380,000 years old, and photons were able to travel through empty space.
Mass to particles If you want to add the winning Higgs boson to the standard model and thus combine gravity with quantum physics , you can only do this by adding new particles to physics. You have to prove with experiments and observations that the particles predicted in your model really exist. Before we continue, let’s mention that we predicted the Higgs particle in the 1960s and first saw it in 2012 at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN. Details don’t matter. Just know that the LHC is the world’s most powerful particle accelerator. By the way, let’s add the feature that the media left behind in the Higgs particle:
The Higgs boson doesn’t just operate the mechanism that makes the particles gain mass. It also enabled the separation of the weak nuclear force responsible for radioactive decay and the electromagnetic force (heat, light, radio waves, microwaves, etc.), which I wrote down as the electroweak force. Now you will say, but teacher, why do we tense so much? We are contracting; because there is something embarrassing in particle physics. We found the Higgs predicted in the standard model, but we don’t know well its properties such as its mass. Nor do we know very well if there is more than one type of Higgs, or how it interacts with other particles. Ok, there’s the Higgs mechanism, but that’s rough information. We need to solve the Higgs!
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Higgs detector trace in collided and shattered protons. representative.
Higgs boson and quantum gravity
Aside from the dream of fine-tuning the standard model and developing a quantum theory of gravity, at least As far as we know, we should know how the Higgs interacts with other particles. When we say bosons, we call matter particles hadrons and energy particles bosons. Photon and gluon are always bosons. The Higgs “bosonism” is somewhat complex, but that is not the subject of this article. In any case, they both come to the same conclusion, since it is necessary to solve the Higgs before explaining how the universe was formed in the big bang with the Higgs boson.
Our biggest motivation in developing the new Higgs theory is “why is that so?”. Today we explain the universe with dynamical theories, but we don’t know why the laws of physics are the way they are. We manually add universal constants to the equations to satisfy the “weak energy condition” needed for these laws to explain our universe. These are constants that we measure in nature, but we don’t know why, for example, one of the 26 fundamental constants, universal gravity, is 6,67408 × 10-11 m3 kg-1 s-2.
We don’t know why the Higgs is a mischievous one in the classroom. we want to integrate it fully into the standard model (see the particle chart!) We don’t want the Higgs to be the ugly duckling and the grounded kid. Thus, by developing a quantum theory of gravity, we can learn why of the 4 more fundamental constants from which we derive at least 26 constants.So why is the Higgs a relatively light boson? So back to symmetries in this context:
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Higgs boson and symmetries
Physicists use some symmetries to calculate some high-energy physical interactions (for example, the level of energy they think was produced during the big bang). For example 1) There is charge symmetry. If you reverse the electric charge of particles that undergo a physical interaction, the interaction does not change. For example, if the battery is full, it will not discharge when the charges are reversed (if the protons are negatively charged and the electrons are positively charged, which is antimatter!). 2) It has time symmetry. Gravity works the same way if time moves backwards. Because time is running backwards, there is no antigravity. 3) It has parity or transform factor symmetry. This is very similar to the spatial symmetry you know. The hands of your image in the mirror may appear upside down. It may look left instead of right, but your mirror image obeys the same laws of physics as you.
If we attribute this to the strong nuclear force, we see that it obeys both the charge symmetry and the transformation factor. However, as I said, the equations we use to describe the strong nuclear force do not obey this symmetry (an example of symmetry in mathematics is 2 x 3 equals 3 x 2). In summary, we do not know why the strong nuclear force in nature has such a bisynthetic symmetry (gaze). This is the same question as why are universal constants so. I wrote this in the articles on anthropic principles and whether there is a god in physics, in addition to the article on universal constants. One solution to the problem derives from the apocalyptic argument:
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The multiverse, bubble universes. representative.
Higgs boson and cosmology
According to the apocalyptic argument, our universe is not a special universe. Just as your chances of being the first born or the last born person are too low to happen, this is exactly the case. Unless our universe is special, the universal constants are randomly determined. However, if we tweaked them a little, that is, if we changed the value of the constants a little, the universe would be destroyed. You can say there is nothing unusual in this, sir. If the universal constants were not like that, our universe would not be like that. Yes, but we need to explain why those constants were the way they were at the beginning, during the big bang.
God and the Higgs boson in physics
God in Islam, Christianity, and Judaism is an explanation for this. . The philosophy of being is another explanation. One of the explanations in physics is the multiverse… Due to cosmic inflation, there are an infinite number of bubble universes in the universe. In each of them there are perhaps an infinite number of observable universes like ours. The universal constants of one of these universes, our universe, will be suitable for human life. This may sound logical to you, but from the point of view of the philosophy of science, the multiverse is a very problematic explanation.
After all, the universe is finitely complex. The multiverse, on the other hand, is infinitely complex. To explain something finite to something infinite is for art, for art. Kozan is like saying Kozan is. If you don’t know me, saying Kozan is Kozan doesn’t mean anything. For example, if you know horses and me, you would say Kozan is not a horse or something. That’s why we have many multiverse theories, but we couldn’t prove them by looking at this universe. Since we could not see outside the universe, we were stuck. You know, that symmetry breaking, phase transition issue (here are the details). The new Higgs theory is one of the new generation theories that can solve this problem.
New generation cosmology theories similar to the Higgs boson theory make scientific predictions that we can test in our universe: Like the first gravitational waves left over from the big bang… The intensity of these waves , the vibrational modes are different in each theory so that we can test many theories (including certain string theory cosmologies, but not all!). In fact, the main thing that distinguishes one universe from another may be the Higgs mass. Universes with very heavy Higgs bosons will collapse immediately and become black holes, for example… Thus, we use this universe to explain it with an infinite number of universes.It also evaporates instantly as a microscopic black hole. So, only a finite number of universes in the universe can have the right Higgs mass suitable for human life. If this is a certain x mass and the numbers are infinite, there is an infinite Higgs mass that is not x mass, but these are none of our business in explaining how OUR universe was formed.
However, for this Higgs We need to answer the question why do we have the mass. Here, Italian researchers Raffaele Tito D’Agnolo and Daniele Teresi1 from the Saclay Institute of Theoretical Physics in France have developed a new Higgs boson theory to find the answer. They modified the strong nuclear force to unify gravity with quantum mechanics. So much so that they showed how this force derives from the discrete charge and transform factor symmetries seen in nature, with its combined symmetry. For this, they added two new particles to the standard model. As we say polychrome, one of these particles is very similar to the axion particle predicted by the physics giant Weinberg, who passed away recently.
Maybe that’s why we found dark matter, too; because axion is a dark matter particle! Because dark matter makes up 85 percent of the matter in the universe, we kill two birds with one stone. What bird? We shoot a big pterodactyl! Explaining dark matter and developing a quantum theory of gravity while solving the mysterious Higgs boson problem… What shall we say? Nobody should think that scientists are henpecked wimps. 😊
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How do we test?
Axion, but its other lightweight sibling, if it’s light enough for the LHC to produce, we may be able to test it over the next few years. We can detect the Axion in the Super Deep Cooled Dark Matter Research detector. In addition, according to the new Higgs theory, the electric charge of the quarks in the neutrons is distributed asymmetrically, that is, not evenly in all directions, but in such a way that they accumulate at one point. The rate of asymmetry is different from that predicted in the standard model. Neutron measurements can reveal this difference. In summary, although we cannot prove that this theory is wrong, we will at least figure out whether it will reach its goal in 20 years.
After all, we now know so much about physics that we can make predictions that will take 50 years to test. Still, it takes 20 years to see whether a theory works or not. So you get a good idea of how scientific research is conducted and theoretical physics. You’ve seen that there are no two-and-a-half meatballs in nature, that every theory cannot be proven in 15 minutes and cannot explain everything.
You may also ask if sterile neutrinos are dark matter, and you may be surprised that there is dark matter, but not as you know it. Can gravitons Explain Dark Matter, and you may wonder why dark matter theories oppose modified gravity. If you can’t slow down, you can dive into the question of how dark matter stars are formed, and get out of the questions of the fifth force: will dark energy destroy the universe and cosmological constant dark energy. If you are feeling brave, you can even investigate the question of whether there is dark energy or massive gravity. Stay with science and health! 😊