Speedround: Can a train run at the speed of sound?

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What is a supercharger, that is, a train that travels at the speed of sound in vacuum tubes? Will the Hyperloop speedball replace bullet trains and maglev bullet trains? A few months ago, I talked about hypersonic missiles, new generation supersonic passenger planes that will fly silently, suborbital hypersonic passenger planes and Turkey’s efforts to send rockets into space. In short, we learned a lot about missiles that go 2 to 10 times faster than sound, unmanned aerial vehicles and future aircraft. What about trains that go above ground at the speed of sound? In 2013, Elon Musk put forward the project of passenger and freight trains that will travel at the speed of sound almost in vacuum tubes, which will be laid like a pipeline above the ground. So, will the speedloop, or in its English Hyperloop, replace airplanes?

After all, they would have to go back and forth the same distance 2.5 times, until they could get somewhere by plane in 2.5 hours. He would do this, for example, between Los Angeles and San Francisco. After all, speedometers would operate directly from the stations in the city, without the hassle of waiting and traffic to reach the airport. In fact, the companies that got into this business claimed that the speedometer would bankrupt airline companies by replacing domestic flights. So what is a roundabout and how does it work? Could it replace passenger planes in the future?

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Hemorrhoids and bullet trains

Let’s start with the terms first. The way to do science starts with defining its terms and setting your assumptions. These are both the domains of philosophy and logic. If you do anything wrong at this stage, your theories will be wrong from the start. In this context, the full Turkish equivalent of Hyperloop is hyper ring. Just like those ER2 buses that run the ring in Kadıköy. Instead of stopping at the last stop, public transport vehicles that make the ring return to the first stop, back and sometimes from another road. The speedometer won’t work that way. It will always be one-way and with a final stop.

On the other hand, Hyperloop also means to shuttle back and forth between stops in American English. In this respect, Turkish Hizyuvar is a more correct answer. Round(lac) is used as a loop counterpart, but at least it shows that the speedround will not make ring trips. The round is somewhat reminiscent of train wheels, but as we’ll soon see, the speedometer has no wheels. Nevertheless, the speedometer suits Turkish, just as Hyperloop suits English. There is no perfect term. As we gain new information in research, we see that old terms are insufficient. However, these are embedded in the language and sometimes very cool, like a roundabout. 😊

So lexical etymology aside,

…what is the difference between a bullet train and a bullet train? Super-speed trains, especially in Japan and China, are called bullet trains because of their high speed exceeding 600 km/h and the shape of their aerodynamic locomotive noses. Bullet trains were designed all the way back in 1889, and there were even electric versions going at speeds that were too high for that time, such as 72 km/h. Bullet trains were speeding up to 250 km/h when they came into use on Japan’s Tōkaidō Shinkansen railway line in 1964. We can hope that our high-speed trains will reach this speed for a short time. 😉 Today, super-fast trains accelerate to an average of 350 km and often to 430 km. A speedometer is not a bullet train. So what is it?


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What exactly is a red blood cell?

Hemisphere means a train that reaches the speed of sound by rising above airbags in vacuum tubes. Actually, it’s not a train either; because there is only one car and it is both a locomotive and a passenger or freight car. The famous American engineer and physicist Robert Goddard proposed this design in 1904, which developed the first liquid fuel rocket engine and paved the way for intercontinental nuclear ballistic missiles and space rockets.Such pneumatic pipes existed before the local internet network. 😊

These look like sewer pipes! As a matter of fact, envelopes sent to post offices in the first half of the 1900s were delivered to the sorting desks before being mailed. It was transported by pneumatic tubes between the lower and upper floors of the apartments. You can find them today in old hospitals and post offices in the West. In fact, Chicago inventor Joseph Stoetzel sent his own little girl down a pneumatic vacuum tube in 1908 to show that vacuum tubes are safe!

How to say it

These tubes are the tubular aquaparks of today. It looked like their skateboard. Stoetzel had already worked on the construction of the entertainment systems of an amusement park like this. A pneumatic tube passed through an underground tunnel opened in Forest Park Amusement Park. Air in the tube was being pumped out at one end. This created a vacuum inside, and the roller coasters at the other end of the tube were rapidly passing through the tube with the push of the air coming from that end and coming out from the other end. Stoetzel even sent her own daughter down the tunnel first to show how safe the vacuum tube was.

What shall we say? At that time, child health and safety authorities were inadequate, and there were no ethics committees. Yet this is the ancestor of the speedwheel. As a matter of fact, even though Goddard did not mention the speed of sound, he called these trains Vactrain, vacuum train, which he thought would reach high speeds without air friction in vacuum tubes. So, why are we trying to develop hypersonic passenger planes that fly at 100 km altitude, just the limit of space, but under low orbit, flying at 15 times faster than sound, why are we trying to develop a speedosphere that travels on the ground at the speed of sound?

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Also called hyperloop.

 

Heartosphere vs. hypersonic aircraft

I will summarize because I have explained hypersonic aircraft in detail. Hypersonic planes either take off from the ground upright like a space shuttle or fly supersonic at high altitude. Aircraft that go 5 times the speed of sound or faster are called hypersonic aircraft. In any case, acceleration is harmful to older people. Just like astronauts, only the healthiest passengers can board hypersonic planes. Also these must be light to go very fast. Therefore, it cannot carry heavy loads and many passengers. Moreover, it burns a lot of fuel and carries a lot of fuel. This increases both weight and cost. It is also difficult to produce aircraft and engines that do not melt as they accelerate.

In short, hypersonic aircraft will still be expensive 100 years from now. That’s why Elon Musk thought the speedosphere would be an alternative to hypersonic aircraft. Moreover, SpaceX plans to use a small model of the Starship developed by the company as a hypersonic aircraft. Still, in 2013, he introduced the concept of the roundabout. Don’t get it wrong: Musk’s companies are doing other things. The speedometer is an unproven and risky technology. At least it’s commercially risky. That’s why Musk created the world-wide exaggeration of the speedosphere and directed other companies to it, so he doesn’t care if they go bankrupt.

However, if he’s successful, he can make money by laying the HERO pipelines with his new company, The Boring Company. So, would the speedround be advantageous against hypersonic passenger planes? It depends on the vacuum quality. In a 93 percent deaerated tube, bullet trains can accelerate to 430 km/h with little electricity or fuel consumption. It just has no advantage. Classic high-speed trains are already reaching this speed. Moreover, even though vacuum trains consume less fuel, the construction of the pipeline is a separate expense.

The high blood pressure cell comes out of here

The vacuum bullet trains project proposed by the Swiss failed to materialize. This time, we are talking about wagons that go at 99 percent vacuum. Since these are single wagons and reach the speed of sound, they can compete with bullet trains in terms of cost, but is it a goose foot?

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Hyperoid disadvantages

After Elon Musk’s announcement, California-based Hyperloop Transportation Technologies, also American company Virgin Hyperloop, Canada-France partnership TransPod and India’s DGW Hyperloop companies got their hands on this business, which has been working hard for 6-8 years.As we would not be surprised if we consider Germany’s technological superiority to the United States after the defeat of the Nazis, the Munich Technical University team won all the competitions.

The technology of the hypervigilance also relies on German R&D. Let’s take a look at Musk’s Hyperloop Alpha plans for 2013, too, for the drawbacks of the speedometer. In this design, we see 28 passenger wagons, which can also carry a TIR container instead of passengers. The wagons run at 99.9 percent vacuum, but there is a small amount of helium in the tube. After all, helium is an inert gas that will not ignite and explode in an accident or during friction of the wagon. And a little gas prevents the tunnel from being crushed by the standard Earth atmosphere. Helps lay solid pipelines above ground with little expense. Good so far.

On the other hand, no train can travel with wheels at the speed of sound on rails. Wheels and rails will melt and deform with frictional heat. And you can’t even cool them with liquid nitrogen at –160 degrees when traveling at the speed of sound. Instead, there will be a giant air intake in the nose of the speedometer, like a Mig-21 fighter jet. Helium will enter here and be compressed by the compressor fan at the rear of the vehicle. Then it will be blown to the ground from under the wagon, causing it to rise 1mm from the ground. In short, the orbiter will fly over the airbags and at the speed of sound. Is it possible?

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Heliosphere and jolt

At 99.9 percent vacuum, it’s possible to suck in enough “air” to raise the car 1mm off the ground if you’re driving at the speed of sound. However, when the speedwheel is rising, it will travel at normal train speed. Will he use wheels at that stage? How will they ensure that the wheels are safely off the ground when accelerating, that is, from overheating? Will the vehicle draw enough air to reach the speed of sound? These are serious engineering problems, but not only that. There is also the issue of height. Planet Earth is not a smooth-surfaced neutron star with extreme gravity and its tallest mountains are only 30mm!

Even the best pipeline on earth makes bumps greater than 1mm, meaning it’s bumpy. Even heating and cooling of the air bends the pipeline more than 1 mm. When the bottom of the wagon hits the ground once at the speed of sound (what’s the 1mm margin of error?) the passengers die. There is no need for the wagon to be destroyed when you say it dies. At the slightest jolt at the speed of sound, passengers will jump into the air and bang their heads against the ceiling. It will hit hundreds of times in a 20-minute journey!

As a matter of fact, look at the video

Passengers nearly fall out of their teeth and shake their jaws even when going slower than the speed of sound in the test drive. At the speed of sound, this jolt is deadly. In particular, consider constructive resonance. You know, those suspension bridge-breaking tremors that reinforce each other… The resonance will cause the resonance carriage to disintegrate along with its contents. So forget the shock absorbers and the motorcycle helmet. In my old Hyperloop post, I praised the speedwheel a lot, but I learned something new. For example, due to concussion, they gave up airbags in the velocities and will use maglev instead:

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What is a maglev?

I explained it in superconductors, but in summary, floating or accelerating 1–10 cm above the ground with a magnetic pad is called maglev. In the electromagnetic force, equipoles repel each other. If the rails and the wheels or shoes under the train are superconducting, they will repel each other more strongly. In contrast, even the highest-temperature superconductors that we can use in trains—that is, scale economically—must be cooled with liquid helium. The speedometer can be lifted off the rails by maglev. However, this is also problematic.

Actually, it is problematic for the same reasons that the maglev trains we know have not been widespread for 40 years… It is difficult to cool liquid helium. It is more difficult to cool liquid helium away and transport it to the rails; because it gets hot on the way. It is more costly to cool the helium in situ (need to install several cooling stations on the line).Let’s say you have overcome these problems. There is also the problem of rails!

Now you will say that there was no rail in the tunnel, sir? However, it has to be for a safe stance in emergency situations. Of course the maglev roundabout won’t use rails in practice, but you’re forgetting the pipeline. The pipeline will be deformed by stretching and shrinking at the slightest temperature change in the air. Consider how the rails of a train traveling at 350 kilometers per hour are of superior technology compared to normal rails. We are talking about narrow rails that are resistant to deformation. It also maintains the balance by tilting the train while turning. The speed circle will also tilt while floating in the air, but if the pipeline is slightly bent, it will crash into the walls and explode. What’s the solution?

Go 1800 km on aluminum batteries


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Diving a roundabout underground

There are many more problems with Maglev technology. Let me quote the most important thing: The supercharger will need extra shock absorbers. Along with the helium cooling, this will make the car even heavier. If the air-cushioned cell can carry 28 people, but if the maglev cellar carries 20, then kiss and put it on your head. The maglev system may be as heavy as a fan air intake and fan compressor, but the shock absorbers add a net weight. Anyway… Let’s say we’re going to dig underground tunnels instead of above-ground pipelines. Well, we said pipeline just because tunneling is expensive! Not even counting the earthquakes! After all, an earthquake is a disaster for all trains.

Can we reduce the cost of the tunnel? Of course. We dig a narrower tunnel. For example, it is a narrow tunnel from the subway tunnel, where the train will fit comfortably, but then the train cannot reach the speed of sound. According to the Kantrowitz limit, the narrower a tunnel, the greater the friction. As a result, the air cannot flow under, over or over the train, following the principles of aerodynamics, and it gets stuck in front of it and resists. It is very, very difficult to measure when and how this will happen in a wind tunnel. After all, aerodynamics cannot be calculated by pure computer simulation. You need to get data from the real world. However, we haven’t built a full-size roundabout wagon and accelerated it yet. You can’t measure this work in a stationary wind tunnel without actually speeding up a wagon. ☹

I’m in trouble

Of course, even at 99 percent vacuum, when helium gas is compressed (it’s not cooling helium, it’s helium in the tunnel) it will cause sound waves. This will also shake the train. There’s also the fact that the train doesn’t fit in the tunnel: While a train is turning, the yaw force increases with the square of the speed. Moreover, the yaw force decreases inversely proportional to the radius of the turning curve. In short, the faster the train goes, the bigger the curve it wants to make when turning. Also, it is necessary to increase the turning radius twice according to the speed so that the passengers do not stick to the walls during the turn. However, a bullet train that goes up to 600 km/h turns just fine on special tracks.

It slows down a bit, lies on its side on the shock absorbers, takes advantage of narrow tracks and all. However, none of this would work, since the roundabout travels at the speed of sound by definition. The radius of rotation of the centrifuge won’t fit in even the widest tunnel or tube! It is that big. In short, the speedwheel has to go in a straight tunnel or it has to slow down a lot while turning… This is against the purpose of going at the speed of sound. Is a roundabout impossible?

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Will be practical only in 30 years

There is no insurmountable obstacle to the red blood cell. For this, you don’t have to go to other stars and steal metals that are superconducting at room temperature; But we have to wait for the technology to develop. As a matter of fact, some countries have taken up this issue just to show how rich and resourceful they are. For example, Arab countries with plenty of money. India, on the other hand, benefits from being a poor country with a lack of infrastructure. There, the people are poor, the state is rich, but it is easy for them to invest in new transportation technologies because the infrastructure is lacking. Indeed, China, Abu Dhabi, and India will soon begin trials with small wagons on short lines, such as maglevs in Japan.

Though they won’t go at the speed of sound.After testing engineering problems at safe speeds, it may be possible to evaluate the speed of sound. This is the right R&D process. However, the most important problem is the speedball itself. It is not economical to transport passengers and cargo individually by wagons. For this, we use trains consisting of many wagons and aircraft with high cargo/passenger capacity. Bullet trains going through a vacuum tube, but not a speedometer, are more likely to become widespread.

You too can now take a look at the universe’s craziest hyper-speed stars and rogue planets roaming in space without a sun. You can immediately see graphene showing promise in solar power, batteries, hydrogen fuel cells and computer technology. If you want a speed record in space, you can also look at cosmic lasers and the answer to the question of what happens if the LHC particle accelerator at CERN accidentally produces a black hole. Stay safe and with science.

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1Vacuum Tube Transportation System – U.S. Patent Office, 1950
2From Berne to Zürich in 12 Minutes!
3Dynamic amplification factors for ultra-high-speed hyperloop trains: Vertical and lateral vibrations{11 }
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Hyperloop System Optimization
5Hyperloop — The ALICE analysis train system for Run 3
6Genetic optimization of the Hyperloop route through the Grapevine

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